The dream of music lovers to have a university, which extends the facility to learn every kind of music under one roof, will soon be realised with the Government setting up the Dr. Gangubai Hangal Music and Performing Arts University. The first ever music university in South India will, in all probability, start its academic activities by September this year.
When the Government decided to set up the varsity, the natural choice was Mysore, as there is a close and historical relationship between the city and music. It is surprising, pleasantly so, that this ‘dream' varsity has been able to come into being within two years of the idea being floated.
During the presentation of his first budget as Chief Minister, B.S. Yeddyurappa made known his desire to set up this institution and earmarked Rs.5 crore for the purpose. He appointed Professor in Music, Hampi Kannada University, Hanumanna Naik Dore, as special officer in 2008.
Mr. Dore, an accomplished Hindustani vocalist, travelled all over the country to meet musicians, academicians, and vice-chancellors of various universities to structure the framework of the varsity. He then drafted a legislation for setting up the university and submitted it to the Department of Higher Education.
The legislation was passed in both the Houses of the Assembly on July 29 and Mr. Dore was appointed the first Vice-Chancellor. Now, he is all set to take up work on building teaching blocks in the place allotted.
Surrounded by Varuna Canal and picturesque hills, the area provides the perfect ambience for the students to learn music. Mr. Dore has a dream of designing the buildings without harming the existing eco-system. Instead of constructing huge concrete structures for teaching, he hopes to construct cottages in the midst of green on the lines of the ancient gurukulas.
As a first step the university will be launching ‘Sangeetha Kaaranji,' a programme to create interest among the students of music to enrol. According to Mr. Dore, students with PUC and with basic degree in any faculty can join the courses. An entrance exam will be held to test their interest in music and performing arts. Though earlier it was thought of setting up an exclusive music university, later it was decided to include other performing arts to extend the scope of the varsity.
The Government is also enthusiastic in making the university a centre of excellence. It has promised to release Rs.25 crore, in the budget to be presented this month, for creating infrastructure.
Besides courses in various music forms such as Hindustani, Carnatic, folk, light, western and cinema, classes will be conducted in dance forms including Bharatanatyam, Odissi and Kathak and dramatics.
Though there are departments of music in various universities of South India, this is the only distinctive university meant to promote music and performing arts.
The syllabus for the courses has already been prepared and it has been planned to concentrate on the areas of research, publication and teaching. The university will be imparting education in music and performing arts both in gurukula and modern systems.
While the former system will groom artistes, the latter will help students in getting academic qualification and degrees. Both residential and non-residential courses will be offered in the gurukula system. Scholarships and hostel facilities will be provided to students. There is also a plan to send the students to gurus (musicians) in various parts of the country.
Besides taking up teaching, those who acquire a degree from the university can work for music channels, music troupes and music research organisations as musicologists, and can also function as music therapists and music critics in both print and visual media.
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Modern Valentine's Day symbols include the heart-shaped outline, doves, and the figure of the winged Cupid. Since the 19th century, handwritten valentines have largely given way to mass-produced greeting cards
The sending of Valentines was a fashion in nineteenth-century Great Britain, and, in 1847, Esther Howland developed a successful business in her Worcester, Massachusetts home with hand-made Valentine cards based on British models. The popularity of Valentine cards in 19th century America, where many Valentine cards are now general greeting cards rather than declarations of love, was a harbinger of the future commercialization of holidays in the United States. It's considered one of the Hallmark holidays.
The U.S. Greeting Card Association estimates that approximately one billion valentines are sent each year worldwide, making the day the second largest card-sending holiday of the year, behind Christmas. The association estimates that, in the US, men spend on average twice as much money as women.
Numerous early Christian martyrs were named Valentine. The Valentines honored on February 14 are Valentine of Rome (Valentinus presb. m. Romae) and Valentine of Terni (Valentinus ep. Interamnensis m. Romae). Valentine of Rome was a priest in Rome who was martyred about AD 269 and was buried on the Via Flaminia. His relics are at the Church of Saint Praxed in Rome, and at Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church in Dublin, Ireland.
Valentine of Terni became bishop of Interamna (modern Terni) about AD 197 and is said to have been martyred during the persecution under Emperor Aurelian. He is also buried on the Via Flaminia, but in a different location than Valentine of Rome. His relics are at the Basilica of Saint Valentine in Terni (Basilica di San Valentino).
The Catholic Encyclopedia also speaks of a third saint named Valentine who was mentioned in early martyrologies under date of February 14. He was martyred in Africa with a number of companions, but nothing more is known about him.
No romantic elements are present in the original early medieval biographies of either of these martyrs. By the time a Saint Valentine became linked to romance in the fourteenth century, distinctions between Valentine of Rome and Valentine of Terni were utterly lost.
In the 1969 revision of the Roman Catholic Calendar of Saints, the feastday of Saint Valentine on February 14 was removed from the General Roman Calendar and relegated to particular (local or even national) calendars for the following reason: "Though the memorial of Saint Valentine is ancient, it is left to particular calendars, since, apart from his name, nothing is known of Saint Valentine except that he was buried on the Via Flaminia on February 14." The feast day is still celebrated in Balzan (Malta) where relics of the saint are claimed to be found, and also throughout the world by Traditionalist Catholics who follow the older, pre-Vatican II calendar.
The Early Medieval acta of either Saint Valentine were expounded briefly in Legenda Aurea. According to that version, St Valentine was persecuted as a Christian and interrogated by Roman Emperor Claudius II in person. Claudius was impressed by Valentine and had a discussion with him, attempting to get him to convert to Roman paganism in order to save his life. Valentine refused and tried to convert Claudius to Christianity instead. Because of this, he was executed. Before his execution, he is reported to have performed a miracle by healing the blind daughter of his jailer.