A cloud burst is a form of torrential rainfall accompanied by hail and thunder. It is usually observed in high altitude areas and occurs due to the formation of a low pressure area on the top of a mountain. The low pressure zone attracts clouds to the top of the mountain with great force. When they hit the peak, the moisture content is released in the form of rain. The state of Himachal Pradesh witnesses the most number of cloud bursts. Valleys affected by cloud bursts are generally strewn with huge boulders brought down by the rain. Cloud bursts mainly occur in the Himalayas and can cause rainfall of up to 75 mm per hour.
The Tehri Dam is a rock and earth-fill embankment dam on the Bhagirathi River near Tehriin Uttarakhand, India. It is the primary dam of theTehri Hydro Development Corporation Ltd. and the Tehri hydroelectric complex. Completed in 2006, the Tehri Dam withholds a reservoir of 2.6 billion cubic meters for irrigation, municipal water supply and the generation of 1,000 MW of hydroelectricity along with an additional 1,000 MW of pumped storage hydroelectricity.
A preliminary investigation for the Tehri Dam Project was completed in 1961 and its design was completed in 1972 with a 600 MW capacity power plant based off the study. Constructed began in 1978 after feasibility studies but was delayed because of financial, environmental and social impacts. In 1986, technical and financial assistance was provided by the USSR but this was interrupted years later with political instability. India was forced to take control of the project and at first it was placed under the direction of the Irrigation Department of Uttar Pradesh. However, in 1988, the Tehri Hydro Development Corporation was formed to manage the dam and 75% of the funding would be provide by the federal government, 25% by the state. Uttar Pradesh would finance the entire irrigation portion of the project. In 1990, the project was reconsidered and the design changed to its current multi-purpose, including a 2400 MW power production capacity. Construction on the Tehri Dam was complete in 2006 while the second part of the project, the Koteshwar Dam, remains ongoing.
The 1000 MW Tehri Dam is part of the Tehri Hydropower Complex which also includes the 400 MW Koteshwar Dam downstream and the 1000 MW Tehri Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Power Plant which is set for completion in 2013. The Tehri dam along with the downstream Koteshwar Dam and the Tehri pumped storage hydroelectricity power plantwill afford a power generation capacity of 2400 MW, provision of irrigation to an area of 270,000 hectares, irrigation stabilization to an area of 600,000 hectares, and a supply of 270million gallons of drinking water per day to the industrialized areas of Delhi, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand.
Tehri dam on the rivers Bhagirathi and Bhilangana, 2005
Each recipient, or laureate, is presented with a gold medal, adiploma, and a sum of money which depends on theNobel Foundation's income that year. In 2009, each prize was worth 10 millionSEK(c. US$1.4 million). The prize cannot be awarded posthumously, nor may a prize be shared among more than three people.
Alfred Nobelwas born on 21 October 1833 inStockholm, Sweden, into a family of engineers.He was a chemist, engineer, and inventor. In 1895 Nobel purchased theBoforsiron and steel mill, which he converted into a majorarmamentsmanufacturer. Nobel also inventedballistite, the immediate precurser to many smokeless military explosives. Nobel amassed a fortune during his lifetime, most of it from his 355 inventions, of which dynamite is the most famous. In 1888, Alfred had the unpleasant surprise of reading his own obituary, titled‘The merchant of death is dead’, in a French newspaper. As it was Alfred's brotherLudvigwho had died, the obituary was eight years premature. Alfred was disappointed with what he read and concerned with how he would be remembered. This inspired him to change his will.On 10 December 1896 Alfred Nobel died in his villa inSan Remo, Italy, at the age of 63 from acerebral haemorrhage.
To the surprise of many, Nobel's last will requested that his fortune be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" inphysics,chemistry,peace,physiologyormedicine, andliterature.Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime. The last was written over a year before he died, signed at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris on 27 November 1895.Nobel bequeathed 94% of his total assets, 31 million SEK (c. US$186 million in 2008), to establish the five Nobel Prizes Because of the level of scepticism surrounding the will, it was not until 26 April 1897 that it was approved by theStortingin Norway.The executors of his will wereRagnar Sohlmanand Rudolf Lilljequist, who formed the Nobel Foundation to take care of Nobel's fortune and organise the prizes.
Nobel's instructions named a Norwegian Nobel Committee to award the Peace Prize, the members of whom were appointed shortly after the will was approved in April 1897. Soon thereafter, the other prize-awarding organisations were established: the Karolinska Institutet on 7 June, the Swedish Academy on 9 June, and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on 11 June.The Nobel Foundation reached an agreement on guidelines for how the prizes should be awarded, and in 1900, the Nobel Foundation's newly-createdstatuteswere promulgated byKing Oscar II.In 1905, theUnion between Sweden and Norwaywas dissolved. Thereafter Norway's Nobel Committee remained responsible for awarding the Nobel Peace Prize and the Swedish institutions retained responsibility for the other prizes.
The Nobel Foundation was founded as a private organisation on 29 June 1900, to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes. In accordance with Nobel's will, the primary task of the Foundation is to manage the fortune Nobel left. Another important task of the Nobel Foundation is to market the prizes internationally and to oversee informal administration related to the prizes. The Foundation is not involved in the process of selecting the Nobel laureates. In many ways the Nobel Foundation is similar to aninvestment company, in that it invests Nobel's money to create a solid funding base for the prizes and the administrative activities. The Nobel Foundation is exempt from all taxes in Sweden (since 1946) and from investment taxes in the United States (since 1953).Since the 1980s, the Foundation's investments have become more profitable and as of 31 December 2007, the assets controlled by the Nobel Foundation amounted to 3.628 billion Swedishkronor(c. US$560 million)
According to the statutes, the Foundation should consist of a board of five Swedish or Norwegian citizens, with its seat in Stockholm. TheChairman of the Boardshould be appointed by the SwedishKing in Council, with the other four members appointed by thetrusteesof the prize-awarding institutions. AnExecutive Directoris chosen from among theboard members, a Deputy Director is appointed by the King in Council, and two deputies are appointed by the trustees. However, since 1995 all the members of the board have been chosen by the trustees, and the Executive Director and the Deputy Director appointed by the board itself. As well as the board, the Nobel Foundation is made up of the prize-awarding institutions (the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institute, the Swedish Academy, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee), the trustees of these institutions, andauditors.
The Nobel Committee's Physics Prize shortlist citedWilhelm Conrad Röntgen's discovery ofX-raysand Philipp Lenard's work oncathode rays. The Academy of Sciences selected Röntgen for the prize. In the last decades of the 19th century many chemists had made significant advances in their subject. Thus, with the Chemistry Prize, the Academy "was chiefly faced with merely deciding the order in which these scientists should be awarded the prize." The Academy received 20 nominations, eleven of them forJacobus van't Hoff. Van't Hoff was awarded the prize for his contributions in chemical thermodynamics.
The Swedish Academy chose the poetSully Prudhommefor the first Nobel Prize in Literature. A group including 42 Swedish writers, artists and literary critics protested against this decision, having expected Leo Tolstoyto win.Some, including Burton Feldman, have criticised this prize because they consider Prudhomme a mediocre poet. Feldman's explanation is that most of the Academy members preferredVictorian literatureand thus selected a Victorian poet.The first Physiology or Medicine Prize went to the German physicist and microbiologistEmil von Behring. During the 1890s, von Behring developed anantitoxinto treatdiphtheria, which until then was causing thousands of deaths each year.
In the months of Ashwin and kartik, Hindus observe a 10 day ceremony of fast, rituals, celebrations, fiests to honor the mother Goddess and triumph of Lord Rama over Demon Ravana. Dussehra also symbolizes the triumph of warrior Goddess Durga over the buffalo demon, Mahishasura. Thus, it is a celebration of victory of good over evil.
This celebration starts from Navratri and ends with the tenth day festival of “Dussehra”. Navratri and Dussehra is celebrated throughout the country at the same time, with varying rituals, but with great enthusiasm and energy as it marks the end of scorching summer and the start of winter season.
The 'Ramlila' - an enactment of the life of Lord Rama, is held during the nine days preceding Dussehra. On the tenth day (Dussehra or Vijay Dasami), larger than life effigies of Ravana, his son and brother - Meghnadh and Kumbhakarna are set to fire.
The theatrical enactment of this dramatic encounter is held throughout the country in which every section of people participates enthusiastically.
In burning the effigies the people are asked to burn the evil within them, and thus follow the path of truth and goodness, bearing in mind the instance of Ravana, who despite all his might and majesty was destroyed for his evil ways.
Dussehra is also known as Vijaya Dasami, because of the victory of Ram over Ravana. On this day in Satya Yug, Ram (the eighth incarnation of Lord Vishnu), killed the great demon and king of Lanka, Ravana.
Puranas also opined that in this day warrior Goddess Durga defeated and killed the buffalo demon Mahishasura.